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Common Disorders
Myofascial Trigger points:

Trigger point is a hyper irritable spot, usually within a taut band of skeletal muscle or
its fascia. It is point tender on site, often exhibits a predictable pain referral pattern
and causes shortening of the affected muscle.

Type of Trigger points:
  • Active trigger point, is painful at rest and with movement of the muscle containing it.
  • Latent Trigger points, produces pain only when palpated and may become  active by any referred pain from active trigger point, visceral pain or Osteoarthritic pain.
  • Primary trigger point, affected muscle.
  • Secondary trigger point, over worked synergist or antagonist muscle.
  • Satellite trigger point, lies within referral pattern of another trigger point.
Trigger points are idiopathic in nature.

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome ( T.O.S ):

T.O.S is a condition that involves the compression of Brachial plexus (nerves) and its accompanying artery between the Scalene (Neck Muscle) or coracoid process and Pectoralis minor Muscle or between Clavicle and first rib. This causes numbness and tingling of fourth and fifth(baby finger) hands and forearm.

Causes of T.O.S:

  • Internal(Bony callus, Cervical rib) or external(Crutches)
  • Prolong poor posture
  • Trauma and joint Subluxation and Pregnancy

Piriformis Syndrome:

Compression of the Sciatic nerve by Piriformis(deep buttock) muscle. It is usually unilateral(one side) and results in pain and paresthesia(numbness) in back of thigh,projecting to the calf and sole of the foot.


  • Abnormality in the course of the Nerve such as penetration of the Piriformis muscle.
  • Inflammation, overuse, postural and positional concerns(back wallet).
  • Active trigger point in Piriformis result in pain in low back,buttocks,hip and back thigh.

Tension Headache:

Tension headaches are headaches with muscular origins and are associated with trigger points and other myofascial pain syndromes.

Headaches with Muscular origins:
  • Cervicogenic headaches describes a headache that is unilateral(one side) and frontal,arising from structure in neck.
  • Spinally mediated headache describes a headache with origin in trigger points in muscle of neck and thorax(mid back) as low as 10th thoracic vertebra.
  • Chronic daily headache describes a headache that are constant but with fluctuation in pain level.chronic pain lowers the quality of life.
Causes of Tension Headaches:

  • Trigger points
  • Sleep disturbance
  • Postural imbalances
  • TMJ dysfunction.

Source: Clinical Massage Therapy

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